The operation of the mine to recover the ore begins and continues as long as the company operating the mine finds it economical to do so. After declines in production, another boom in mining occurred in the 1960s. The entrance process is voluntary for each country and is monitored by multiple stakeholders including governments, private companies and civil society representatives, responsible for disclosure and dissemination of the reconciliation report;[62] however, the competitive disadvantage of company-by company public report is for some of the businesses in Ghana at least, the main constraint. mining translation in English - Spanish Reverso dictionary, see also 'mining engineer',mining industry',mining town',coal mining', examples, definition, conjugation Mining meaning in Urdu: کان کنی - Kan Kuni meaning, Definition Synonyms at English to Urdu dictionary gives you the best and accurate urdu translation and meanings of Mining and Kan Kuni Meaning. [6] At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. They built numerous aqueducts to supply water to the minehead. Initially, many metals were obtained through open-pit mining, and ore was primarily extracted from shallow depths, rather than through deep mine shafts. Mining has been identified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. [17] Black powder allowed blasting of rock and earth to loosen and reveal ore veins. Coal mining has historically been a key industry in Cape Breton, and with the government pullout miners will be left with few alternatives for work. Mine definition is - my —used before a word beginning with a vowel or h or sometimes as a modifier of a preceding noun—archaic except in an elevated style. [18] In 1762, the world's first mining academy was established in the same town there. ...traditional industries such as coal mining. The current NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) of noise is 85 dBA with a 3 dBA exchange rate and the MSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) is 90 dBA with a 5 dBA exchange rate as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. These were used to make early tools and weapons; for example, high quality flint found in northern France, southern England and Poland was used to create flint tools. But in England, royal mining rights were restricted to gold and silver (of which England had virtually no deposits) by a judicial decision of 1568 and a law in 1688. Some outstanding examples of Philippine jewelry included necklaces, belts, armlets and rings placed around the waist. As of 2008, the deepest mine in the world is TauTona in Carletonville, South Africa, at 3.9 kilometres (2.4 mi),[81] replacing the neighboring Savuka Mine in the North West Province of South Africa at 3,774 metres (12,382 ft). Cave-ins, rock falls, and exposure to excess heat are also known hazards. In 2018, led by Chemistry and Biochemistry professor Bradley D. Smith, University of Notre Dame researchers "invented a new class of molecules whose shape and size enable them to capture and contain precious metal ions," reported in a study published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society. Around the 14th century, the growing use of weapons, armour, stirrups, and horseshoes greatly increased the demand for iron. (2002). Increasing debate and influence by NGOs and local communities called for a new approaches which would also include disadvantaged communities, and work towards sustainable development even after mine closure (including transparency and revenue management). [41] In 1992, a Draft Code of Conduct for Transnational Corporations was proposed at the Rio Earth Summit by the UN Centre for Transnational Corporations (UNCTC), but the Business Council for Sustainable Development (BCSD) together with the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) argued successfully for self-regulation instead. However, they warned that the recycling rates of some rare metals used in applications such as mobile phones, battery packs for hybrid cars, and fuel cells are so low that unless future end-of-life recycling rates are dramatically stepped up these critical metals will become unavailable for use in modern technology. Miscellaneous other certification programs exist for various projects, typically through nonprofit groups.[41]:185–86. Both types of ore deposit, placer or lode, are mined by both surface and underground methods. [67], On the other hand, implementation has issues; inclusion or exclusion of artisanal mining and small-scale mining (ASM) from the EITI and how to deal with "non-cash" payments made by companies to subnational governments. Techniques of surface mining include: open-pit mining, which is the recovery of materials from an open pit in the ground, quarrying, identical to open-pit mining except that it refers to sand, stone and clay;[35] strip mining, which consists of stripping surface layers off to reveal ore/seams underneath; and mountaintop removal, commonly associated with coal mining, which involves taking the top of a mountain off to reach ore deposits at depth. Proper ventilation, hearing protection, and spraying equipment with water are important safety practices in mines. [53] In 2007 the total market capitalization of mining companies was reported at US$962 billion, which compares to a total global market cap of publicly traded companies of about US$50 trillion in 2007. [62] By the beginning of the 21st century the booming and increasingly complex mining sector in mineral-rich countries was providing only slight benefits to local communities, especially in given the sustainability issues. [14] The overwhelming dependency on iron for military purposes spurred iron production and extraction processes. With data mining, a retailer could manage and use point-of-sale records of customer purchases to send targeted promotions based on an individual’s purchase history. Mining is the industry and activities connected with getting valuable or useful minerals from the ground, for example coal, diamonds, or gold. It can be argued that what is referred to as the 'mining industry' is actually two sectors, one specializing in exploration for new resources and the other in mining those resources. [46] In 2000 it was estimated that 3,500 tailings impoundments existed, and that every year, 2 to 5 major failures and 35 minor failures occurred;[47] for example, in the Marcopper mining disaster at least 2 million tons of tailings were released into a local river. Trams are used to transport miners, minerals and waste. The Roman miners used similar methods to work cassiterite deposits in Cornwall and lead ore in the Pennines. Mine definition, a form of the possessive case of I used as a predicate adjective: The yellow sweater is mine. As the 21st century begins, a globalized mining industry of large multinational corporations has arisen. There are many synonyms of Mining which include Boring, Burrowing, Digging, Drilling, Pitting, Quarrying, Scooping, Tapping, Unearthing, Hollowing, Tunneling, Prospecting, etc. High wall mining can produce thousands of tons of coal in contour-strip operations with narrow benches, previously mined areas, trench mine applications and steep-dip seams with controlled water-inflow pump system and/or a gas (inert) venting system. Other precious metals were also used, mainly for gilding or coinage. mining meaning. Ore, for processing, and waste rock, for disposal, are brought to the surface through the tunnels and shafts. For major mining companies and any company seeking international financing, there are a number of other mechanisms to enforce environmental standards. When the mineralised package is determined by an economic cut-off, the near-grade mineralised waste is usually dumped separately with view to later treatment should market conditions change and it becomes economically viable. [28] As with the California Gold Rush in the mid-19th century, mining for minerals and precious metals, along with ranching, was a driving factor in the Westward Expansion to the Pacific coast. Often more waste than ore is mined during the life of a mine, depending on the nature and location of the ore body. How to use mining in a sentence. Due to high transportation cost and theft during transportation the cost for generating electricity is normally high. A speaker or writer uses mine to... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Electricity is typically generated with diesel generators. MIT Press. Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Air Shaft - A vertical opening into a mine for the passage of air. [89] However, levels of metals recycling are generally low. The purpose of a 2012 EPS PEAKS paper[44] was to provide evidence on policies managing ecological costs and maximise socio-economic benefits of mining using host country regulatory initiatives. Both solar and wind power plants can contribute in saving diesel costs at mining sites. You can get more than one meaning for one word in Arabic. The early Filipinos worked various mines of gold, silver, copper and iron. There are numerous occupational hazards associated with mining, including exposure to rockdust which can lead to diseases such as silicosis, asbestosis, and pneumoconiosis. (1) But like many industries, mining is affected by … New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Open-File Report DM-49. [29] Aided by railroads, many traveled West for work opportunities in mining. Today, surface mining is much more common, and produces, for example, 85% of minerals (excluding petroleum and natural gas) in the United States, including 98% of metallic ores.[32]. Gases in the mine can lead to asphyxiation and could also be ignited. Although they had over 20,000 slaves working them, their technology was essentially identical to their Bronze Age predecessors. Western cities such as Denver and Sacramento originated as mining towns. Verb(1) get from the earth by excavation(2) lay mines. [5], Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi. Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science and statistics with an overall goal to extract information (with intelligent methods) from a data set and transform the information into a comprehensible structure for further use. Show Examples. [22] Early French explorers who encountered the sites[clarification needed] made no use of the metals due to the difficulties of transporting them,[22] but the copper was eventually traded throughout the continent along major river routes. Mining operations usually create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. English Dictionary: 1. As the coal recovery cycle continues, the cutter-head is progressively launched into the coal seam for 19.72 feet (6.01 m). She grew up in a rural coal mining town. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, captured the gold mines of Mount Pangeo in 357 BC to fund his military campaigns. [73] While mining today is substantially safer than it was in previous decades, mining accidents still occur. [94] However, although the first landfill mine opened in Tel Aviv, Israel in 1953, little work has followed due to the abundance of accessible ores. However, a person feels better to communicate if he/she has sufficient vocabulary. & vb. [53], Mining operations can be grouped into five major categories in terms of their respective resources. [66] Therefore, the outcome assessment in terms of failure or success of the new EITI regulation does not only "rest on the government's shoulders" but also on civil society and companies. The water was used for a variety of purposes, including removing overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted, or crushed, ores and driving simple machinery. Cost savings can reach up to 70%. They were worked as treadmills with miners standing on the top slats. The next step is to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate the financial viability, the technical and financial risks, and the robustness of the project. The deepest open-pit mine in the world is Bingham Canyon Mine in Bingham Canyon, Utah, United States, at over 1,200 metres (3,900 ft). For other uses, see, The extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth. At other parts of the site, they penetrated the water table and dewatered the mines using several kinds of machines, especially reverse overshot water-wheels. Otis E. Young. [95], "Underground mining" redirects here. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed.[1]. These generally relate to financing standards such as the Equator Principles, IFC environmental standards, and criteria for Socially responsible investing. In the case of placer mining, unconsolidated gravel, or alluvium, is fed into machinery consisting of a hopper and a shaking screen or trommel which frees the desired minerals from the waste gravel. data mining definition: 1. the process of using special software to look at large amounts of computer data in order to find…. The total movement of ore and waste constitutes the mining process. Retrieved August 27, 2007, A culture of Improvement. There, the water stored in large reservoirs and tanks. Mining [p. pr. 2. [15] Although an increased use of banknotes, credit and copper coins during this period did decrease the value of, and dependence on, precious metals, gold and silver still remained vital to the story of medieval mining. [45] (As time goes on and richer deposits are exhausted – and technology improves to permit – this number is going down to .5 g and less.) Mining operations definition: An operation is a highly organized activity that involves many people doing different... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples [48] In central Finland, Talvivaara Terrafame polymetal mine waste effluent since 2008 and numerous leaks of saline mine water has resulted in ecological collapse of nearby lake. ", Technical Report: Design and Evaluation of Tailings Dams, Trends in the stewardship of tailings dams, "Exclusive: Barrick faces sanctions for Argentina cyanide spills", "Multiple mining impacts induce widespread changes in ecosystem dynamics in a boreal lake", "Database "Renewable Energy & Mining": Wind & solar", "At Mining Sites Renewable Energy Systems are up to 70 Percent Less Expensive than Diesel Power", Industry in Transition: A Profile of the North American Mining Sector, Global stock values top $50 trln: industry data, Environmental Effects of Foreign Investment Versus Domestic Investment in the Mining Sector In Latin-America, China's Continuing Monopoly Over Rare Earth Minerals, "US Census Bureau Site North American Industry Classification System main page", Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon: Global Prices, Deforestation, and Mercury Imports, Amazon Gold Fever Comes with a High Environmental Cost, "Metals Economics Group World Exploration Trends Report", "Regulation & Legitimacy in the Mining Industry in Africa: Where does", "The World Bank's Evolutionary Approach to Mining Sector Reform". [62] Mining-industry expansion after mineral prices increased in 2003 and also potential fiscal revenues in those countries created an omission in the other economic sectors in terms of finances and development. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Picture Rock 7.5 – Minute Quadrangle Sante Fe County, Central New Mexico. A mining company will proceed with the cost of a feasibility study generally once it has proved continuity of its ore deposits confirmed by samplings and or drilling on a relatively detailed grid that allows for fairly precise determination of tonnage, density, mineral and metal content and is that part of the orebody that economic viability has been demonstrated. Processing of ore from a lode mine, whether it is a surface or subsurface mine, requires that the rock ore be crushed and pulverized before extraction of the valuable minerals begins. [93] There is also up to 20 MJ/kg of energy in waste, potentially making the re-extraction more profitable. [57], While exploration and mining can be conducted by individual entrepreneurs or small businesses, most modern-day mines are large enterprises requiring large amounts of capital to establish. The widespread adoption of agricultural innovations such as the iron plowshare, as well as the growing use of metal as a building material, was also a driving force in the tremendous growth of the iron industry during this period. Tailings, which are usually produced as a slurry, are most commonly dumped into ponds made from naturally existing valleys. A study undertaken by Cranfield University has found £360 million of metals could be mined from just four landfill sites. 2007. p. 81, The use of Firesetting in the Granite Quarries of South India Paul T. Craddock The Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society, Vol. [72] The observed negative correlation between natural resources and economic development is known as the resource curse. Some minerals, such as copper minerals and uranium oxide, require acid or carbonate solutions to dissolve. [8] At other mines, such as on the island of Thassos, marble was quarried by the Parians after they arrived in the 7th century BC. Other metals would often wait for railroads or canals, as coarse gold dust and nuggets do not require smelting and are easy to identify and transport. Meaning and Definition of mining. For example, 99 tons of waste are generated per ton of copper, with even higher ratios in gold mining – because only 5.3 g of gold is extracted per ton of ore, a ton of gold produces 200,000 tons of tailings. [20] In Laszlo Legeza's "Tantric elements in pre-Hispanic Philippines Gold Art", he mentioned that gold jewelry of Philippine origin was found in Ancient Egypt. Civil engineering design parameters are used in the design of the waste dumps, and special conditions apply to high-rainfall areas and to seismically active areas. Mining is heavily affected by the prices of the commodity minerals, which are often volatile. This can be accomplished through chemical means such as smelting or through electrolytic reduction, as in the case of aluminium. Data mining is the analysis step of the "knowledge discovery in databases" process, or KDD. NIOSH has found that 25% of noise-exposed workers in Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction have hearing impairment. Mining Claim News From The Diggings™ Learn more about the Bureau of Land Management, Public Land Survey System, and mining claims. [91] This is especially true of aluminium, used in cans, and precious metals, found in discarded electronics. The science of extractive metallurgy is a specialized area in the science of metallurgy that studies the extraction of valuable metals from their ores, especially through chemical or mechanical means. Mining definition, the act, process, or industry of extracting ores, coal, etc., from mines. Turquoise dated at 700 AD was mined in pre-Columbian America; in the Cerillos Mining District in New Mexico, estimates are that "about 15,000 tons of rock had been removed from Mt. the business, job, or process of removing coal from the ground: The lawsuit seeks to limit coal mining in that area. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. The new method "converts gold-containing ore into chloroauric acid and extracts it using an industrial solvent. The activity of removing solid valuables from the earth.. gold mining (figuratively) Any activity that extracts or undermines.. His extensive mining for apparently statistically significant results made any of his results questionable. This estimation is used to conduct a pre-feasibility study to determine the theoretical economics of the ore deposit. These tailings can be toxic. London is known as the capital of global "mining houses" such as Rio Tinto Group, BHP Billiton, and Anglo American PLC. Many examples of such devices have been found in old Roman mines and some examples are now preserved in the British Museum and the National Museum of Wales.[13]. Data mining techniques are useful in many research projects, including mathematics, cybernetics, genetics and marketing. English, German, and Dutch capital combined to finance extraction and refining. These are oil and gas extraction, coal mining, metal ore mining, nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying, and mining support activities. After lode ore is crushed, recovery of the valuable minerals is done by one, or a combination of several, mechanical and chemical techniques. It is also common practice to rehabilitate dumps to an internationally acceptable standard, which in some cases means that higher standards than the local regulatory standard are applied. When a full tank was opened, the flood of water sluiced away the overburden to expose the bedrock underneath and any gold veins. [40] Extreme examples of pollution from mining activities include coal fires, which can last for years or even decades, producing massive amounts of environmental damage. Learn more. The mining industry became dramatically more efficient and prosperous with the invention of mechanical and animal driven pumps. The Romans used hydraulic mining methods on a large scale to prospect for the veins of ore, especially a now-obsolete form of mining known as hushing. [46] These ponds are secured by impoundments (dams or embankment dams). Peace Parks Foundation, "Major Features: Cultural Importance." [63], In 2007 the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) was mainstreamed[clarification needed] in all countries cooperating with the World Bank in mining industry reform. In addition, the price of gold increased dramatically in the 2000s, which increased gold mining; for example, one study found that conversion of forest in the Amazon increased six-fold from the period 2003–2006 (292 ha/yr) to the period 2006–2009 (1,915 ha/yr), largely due to artisanal mining.[59]. Mining equipment can generate considerable noise, putting workers at risk for hearing loss. [20] The natives were also known for the pieces of jewelry made of other precious stones such as carnelian, agate and pearl. Learn mining in English translation and other related translations from Latin to English. Definition of mining in English. Public awareness increase, where government should act as a bridge between public and initiative for a successful outcome of the policy is an important element to be considered. See more. n.] 3. [68] Among other things, limited scope of the EITI involving disparity in terms of knowledge of the industry and negotiation skills, thus far flexibility of the policy (e.g. [3][4] Mines of a similar age in Hungary are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined flint for weapons and tools. Definition of mining in English Dictionary; Noun PL minings PRE mini-SUF-ing +-. 2. [62] The EITI operates and was implemented with the support of the EITI multi-donor trust fund, managed by the World Bank. The Courrières mine disaster, Europe's worst mining accident, involved the death of 1,099 miners in Northern France on March 10, 1906. As recycling rates are low and so much metal has already been extracted, some landfills now contain a higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves. Mining Meaning in English to Urdu is کان کنی, as written in Urdu and Kaan Kuni, as written in Roman Urdu. The miners crushed the ore and ground it to a fine powder before washing the powder for the gold dust. [56] Mining in India is a significant part of that country's economy. The Romans also exploited the silver present in the argentiferous galena in the mines of Cartagena (Cartago Nova), Linares (Castulo), Plasenzuela and Azuaga, among many others. Bulk sample - A large sample of mineralized rock, frequently hundreds of tonnes, selected in such a manner as to be representative of the potential orebody being sampled. Synonyms, Antonyms, Derived Terms, Anagrams and senses of mining. [53] The US mining industry is also large, but it is dominated by the coal and other nonmetal minerals (e.g., rock and sand), and various regulations have worked to reduce the significance of mining in the United States. [36] Landfill mining has been thought of as a solution to dealing with long-term methane emissions and local pollution.[37]. [9] The marble was shipped away and was later found by archaeologists to have been used in buildings including the tomb of Amphipolis. - The act or … Heavy machinery is used in mining to explore and develop sites, to remove and stockpile overburden, to break and remove rocks of various hardness and toughness, to process the ore, and to carry out reclamation projects after the mine is closed. The proportion of a deposit that is economically recoverable is dependent on the enrichment factor of the ore in the area. In 1992 the World Bank began to push for privatization of government-owned mining companies with a new set of codes, beginning with its report The Strategy for African Mining. Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014. Miner definition, a person who works in a mine, especially a commercial mine producing coal or metallic ores. These were used extensively in the copper mines at Rio Tinto in Spain, where one sequence comprised 16 such wheels arranged in pairs, and lifting water about 24 metres (79 ft). The extraction of target minerals by this technique requires that they be soluble, e.g., potash, potassium chloride, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, which dissolve in water. La Ronde obtained permission from the French crown to operate mines in 1733, becoming "the first practical miner on Lake Superior"; seven years later, mining was halted by an outbreak between Sioux and Chippewa tribes.[27]. Bulldozers, drills, explosives and trucks are all necessary for excavating the land. It found existing literature suggesting donors encourage developing countries to: Ore mills generate large amounts of waste, called tailings. Mining [v. The result is that metal mining activities are expanding and more and more of the world's metal stocks are above ground in use rather than below ground as unused reserves. 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