. The rapid depletion of groundwater poses a serious threat to water supplies in world agricultural regions, especially for irrigation. X 2004). . This water is often not used sustainably. Schalch Plants require water for photosynthesis, growth, and reproduction. S B Some common methods of irrigation in agricultural operations are: This is where food safety audits come into play. These plans must include reports on the implementation status of specific Efficient Water Management Practices (EWMPs) that were required under SB X7-7. E Two of the most serious malnutrition problems are iron deficiency, affecting 2 billion people, and protein or calorie deficiency, affecting nearly 800 million people (WHO 2002, 2004b). They can also harm drinking water supplies, aquatic ecosystems, and the recreational uses of water bodies. . Indeed, the Nile River is so overused that during parts of the year little or no fresh water reaches the Mediterranean Sea (Pimentel et al. 2004). In contrast, wheat, which produces less plant biomass than either corn or rice, requires only about 2.4 million L per ha of water for a yield of 2.7 t per ha (table 2). }); Hi, I'm Megan! A . Approximately 35 × 1015 m3 of Earth's water is fresh water, of which about 0.3% is held in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs (Shiklomanov and Rodda 2003). Assuming an average recharge rate of 1%, this leaves only 11 × 1013 m3 of water per year available for sustainable use worldwide. Municipal water is potable water that is provided by the local government. Read our portfolio budget statement. HA . . 4.3 Water use efficiency in agriculture 16 4.4 Virtual water flow 18 4.5 Programs and technologies related to water use efficiency 19 4.6 Institutional and policy aspects 19 4.7 Watershed development for water use efficiency in the agriculture sector 21 4.8 Water rights and water pricing 24 5 Conclusions 25 2004). This water accumulates near the growing area, but something to worry about with this source is that any irrigation water that has become run-off can contain fertilizers or any other chemical that has been applied to the growing area. Withdrawal from the Ogallala is three times faster than its recharge rate (Gleick et al. Water quality from surface water can vary greatly between sites and over time. Worldwide, pesticides alone contribute to an estimated 26 million human poisonings and 220,000 deaths each year (Richter 2002). The government launched an extensive program to promote modern farming technology; to establish rural roads, irrigation networks and storage and export facilities; and to encourage agricultural research and training institutions. Murphy Conserving the world's water must become a priority for individuals, communities, and countries. . Alavian Algae growth and plant pathogens can also be a cause for concern. Under semiarid conditions, yields of nonirrigated crops, such as corn, are low (1.0 to 2.5 t per ha) even when ample amounts of fertilizers are applied (Pimentel et al. Falkenmark Agriculture, an important sector of our economy accounts for 14 per cent of the nation’s GDP and about 11 per cent of its exports. . Farmers should implement water-conserving irrigation practices, such as drip irrigation, to reduce water waste. Keeping animals and their waste out of streams keeps nitrogen and phosphorus out of the water … For example, Egypt obtains 97% of its fresh water from the Nile River, the second longest in the world, which is also shared by 10 other countries (Alavian 2003). The cost of treating US sewage for release into streams and lakes ranges from $0.30 per 1000 L for large treatment plants to $0.55 per 1000 L for smaller plants (Gleick 2000). The likelihood of h… Flessa Surface water: Surface water, including rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, man-made reservoirs, and any other water source that is open to the environment, is the most risky agricultural water. Surfac… 2004). Population growth, increased agricultural irrigation, and other water uses are mining groundwater resources. If further competition for water resources within regions and between countries continues to escalate, this too will have negative impacts on essential freshwater supplies for personal and agricultural use. 1998. (The two main issues were always the lack of water and the shortage of workers.) Worldwide, governmental water subsidies from 1994 to 1998 totaled $45 billion per year for non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries and $15 billion for OECD countries (van Beers and de Moor 2001). 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