Han, Yuguo; Feng, Gary; Ouyang, Ying. Table 4.3 Average annual amount of high intensity rainfall (>0.5 in/hr) and estimates of runoff and soil erosion at Sterling and Stratton, Colorado for years with average to above average annual precipitation (wet years) and years with below average precipitation (dry years). In soil, total phosphorus is much higher than the soluble phosphorus content. Total runoff, sediment, TN and TP losses in fish-scale pits site were 19.70%, 2.03%, 10.10% and 35.97% of those in bare land of the same area, respectively. Phosphorus loss via surface runoff and erosion may be reduced by conservation tillage and crop residue management, buffer strips, riparian zones, terracing, contour tillage, cover crops, and impoundments (e.g., settling basins). A wide range of cover crops can be used for soil and water conservation in the humid tropics (Table 20). The RRS means the relative effectiveness of runoff reduction compared to soil loss reduction. Results show significant effects of IM against control on crop yields, soil loss, surface runoff and moisture retention. MM HASAN,LECTURER,AIE,HSTU 2. ScienceDaily. Runoff plots are the most widely used measurement technique to study the effects of SWCT on runoff and soil loss by water erosion. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agro-nomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem ser-vices. Reducing erosion losses through reduced or no-till on corn or wheat can reduce total phosphorus losses by 50 percent or more. Runoff, sediment, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in fish-scale pits, agricultural land, narrow terraces, shrub cover and bare land, under rainfall events in rainy seasons (from May to November) during the 2010–2015 period, were monitored. The application of integrated soil and water conservation measures (SWCMs) in watersheds is considered one of the main factors responsible for the reduced sediment discharge in river basins [7, 8]. The results show that the untreated watershed had higher sediment and runoff losses than the treated watershed, given similar climatic and land use patterns. Effects of soil and water conservation practices on runoff, sediment and n utrient losses. The intervention of SWC measures by the mobilization of the … Terraces:Soil Water Conservation structure 1. Start saving by breaking a bad habit: Never let faucet water … These measures affect other options such as the … Crops receive water through rainfall, irrigation and stored soil water. This implies that integrating physical soil and water conservation practices with agronomic soil and water conservation practices are essential to increase both provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. Slope hydrodynamic mechanisms and application conditions of these practices were also investigated. Fish-scale pits were suitable for the areas with small single rainfall and good water permeability. Management that protects the soil surface and reduces the probability of runoff is an effective means of soil erosion control. Management practices that reduce this runoff will improve precipitation use efficiency. Decreasing run-off losses: Huge water-loss occurs due to run-off on most of the soils, which can be reduced by allowing most of the water to infiltrate into the soil. (i) Decreasing run-off losses: Huge water loss occurs due to run-off on most of the soils, which can be reduced by allowing most of the water infiltrate into the soil. The results show that the soil and water conservation structures constructed by the farmers reduce the surface runoff and soil losses in the highlands of Ethiopia. The estimates were made separately for wet years (average to above average rainfall) and for dry years (below average rainfall) and for scenarios with low and high runoff probability. Annual rates of erosion by water were estimated to range between about 0.4 tons per acre to as high as 4.1 tons per acre (Table 4.3). And it is a conservation, protection and restoration of watershed to secure the quality and quantity of surface water for further use in a sustainable manner. International Institute of Tropical Forestry, https://www.fs.fed.us/research/people/youyang, A century of precipitation trends in forest lands of the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, Application of Climate Assessment Tool (CAT) to estimate climate variability impacts on nutrient loading from local watersheds, Pond and Irrigation Model (PIM): a tool for simultaneously evaluating pond water availability and crop irrigation demand, Estimating impacts of land use on groundwater quality using trilinear analysis, Real-time estimation of TP load in a Mississippi Delta Stream using a dynamic data driven application system, Impacts of reforestation upon sediment load and water outflow in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed, Mississippi, A Potential Approach for Low Flow Selection in Water Resource Supply and Management, Assessment of surface water quality in the Big Sunflower River Watershed of Mississippi Delta using nonparametric analysis, Identify temporal trend of air temperature and its impact on forest stream flow in Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley using wavelet analysis, A simple approach to estimate daily loads of total, refractory, and labile organic carbon from their seasonal loads in a watershed, The Laws of Diminishing Yields in the Tropics, A wood-strand material for wind erosion control: effects on total sediment loss, PM, The Middle Sacramento River: Human Impacts on Physical and Ecological Processes Along a Meandering River, Strategic Planning, Budget And Accountability, Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air And Rare Plants, Recreation, Heritage And Volunteer Resources. To reduce the adverse impact of land degradation, soil and water conservation (SWC) measures were implemented. Rainfall, streamflow, sediment concentration, and sediment-associated and dissolved nutrient of N and P for … 1. As this 'storm water runoff' travels to the streams it collects pollutants and increases speed. The New Horizons: Ontario’s Agricultural Soil Health and Conservation Strategy is a long-term framework that sets a vision, goals, and objectives for soil health and conservation … Total runoff, sediment, TN and TP losses in fish-scale pits site were 19.70%, 2.03%, 10.10% and 35.97% of those in bare land of the same area, respectively. (2017, November 22). The effects of various soil and water conservation techniques (SWCT) on runoff and soil loss in Europe have been extensively studied over the last 60 years. soil by reducing run-off and keeping the water where it falls, as much as possible. Management practices that protect the soil surface from crusting and runoff can greatly reduce soil erosion rates. Reduction of the volatilization of N as ammonia gas. When runoff water gains sufficient energy to cause soil erosion, the amount of phosphorus lost from the field increases dramatically. How to Be More Water-Wise at Home. Residue management achieved through no-till or minimum till practices is the most effective means of reducing runoff and soil erosion. • Terracing is a practice to reduce runoff, soil erosion, and sediment delivery from upland areas by constructing broad channels across the slope of rolling land. University of Delaware. The presented study investigated the hydrological responses of SWC measures implemented in two nested watersheds situated in the northwestern Ethiopian highland. In contrast, most agronomic soil and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. Soil and water conservation are interrelated; methods that control and conserve water on hillsides also conserve the soil and control erosion. When rainfall was greater than 60 mm, narrow terraces had highest efficiency in reducing sediment loss; therefore, they were suitable for the areas with relatively high rainfall intensity and soils similar to the sandy loams of the study area. Reasons for constructing terace If surface runoff is allowed to flow unimpeded down the slope of arable land these is a danger that its volume or … 14H 2 O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH 3 volatilization. measures in reducing runoff and soil loss: establishment of a European database W. Maetens (1) ... Keywords: desertification, water erosion, runoff plot, soil and water conservation INTRODUCTION The use of SWCT as part of sustainable agricultural practices is an important tool in the ongoing struggle against land degradation and desertification. Water. Hence, many data are available. Reducing phosphorus runoff: Researchers study which incentives prompt farmers to improve environment. Soil and water conservation practices could change the hydraulic characteristics of slopes, decrease Re (Reynolds) and Fr (Froude) numbers, thereby decreasing runoff, sediment, TN and TP losses. This can be achieved by using contour cultivation, terrace framing, water spreading, chemical treatment or improved water-storage system. 10(10): 1333-. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101333. Tree crops are mainly planted on sloped farmland, which can lead to soil erosion caused by runoff. As an important tree crop management strategy, grou… Effect of soil and water conservation measures on hydrological processes and sediment yield in the highlands of North-Western Ethiopia ... Nyssen et al., 2007). The potential to capture as much as three inches of precipitation through improved management practices will translate into greater crop yield and higher profitability. The data in Table 19 show that runoff and soil erosion under a Mucuna cover crop were low and the cover was extremely effective in decreasing erosion losses, even on eroded and compacted soils. Recently, a coupled analysis of historical hourly rainfall intensity data and field measurements from Sterling and Stratton, Colorado were used to estimate potential runoff and soil erosion from dryland agroecosystems (Table 4.3). Significant decreasing trends in river sediment loads have been observed in approximately 50% of the world’s rivers [5, 6]. While wind erosion may dominate in dryland cropping systems, water erosion rates can also threaten the soil's ability to sustain crop production in the long-term. These increased or peak flows cause water to move quickly to the streams. Conservation measures involve reducing the amount of drainage water and they include: source reduction through sound irrigation water management; shallow water table management; groundwater management [1]; and land retirement. and water conservation practices increase crop yield and reduce run-off and soil losses. As to the practice of covering land with plants, the effect was sustainable due to the plants’ long-term growth. Runoff represents a short-term water loss to the cropping system, while soil erosion induced by runoff can cause long-term and permanent damage to agricultural systems. Stone bunds with trenches were the most effective SWC structures in reducing runoff and soil loss. Soil and water conservation practices could change the hydraulic characteristics of slopes, decrease Re (Reynolds) and Fr (Froude) numbers, thereby decreasing runoff, sediment, TN and TP losses. It is estimated that between 2 and 6.8 billion tons of soil per year is lost from cropland in the United States due to erosion. Soil erosion rates are too high for long term sustainability of crop production if management practices do not provide soil surface protection. 1Poor surface protection with little crop residue, 2Good surface protection with adequate crop residue, 3Average annual amount of high intensity rainfall (>0.5 in/hr). Agricultural land was not recommended since the losses on it were relatively higher due to the impact of human activities. Table 4.4 Typical soil water loss from different tillage operations 1 and 4 days after tillage. Runoff plots are the most widely used measurement technique to study the effects of SWCT on runoff and soil loss by water erosion. To reduce the runoff losses of water DISADVANTAGES OF RAINWATER ... stores and release water. The changes to the landscape, not only increase the volume of water that goes to the stream, it also shortens the amount of time it takes the water to get to the stream. The prevention of accelerated soil erosion (which is the reduction of the rate of soil loss to approximately the rate that would occur under natural conditions) relies on selecting appropriate strategies for soil conservation which in turn requires a thorough understanding of the process of erosion (Morgan, 1995). This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain. Poor surface protection with little crop residue, Good surface protection with adequate crop residue, Average annual amount of high intensity rainfall (>0.5 in/hr), Wheat Production and Pest Management for the Great Plains Region, Arthropod Pests of Wheat in the Great Plains, Turning Stored Water into Crop Production, 10. Hence, in an effort to reduce runoff, soil loss and . increase water intake and storage and so reduce runoff, control water movement over the soil surface, dispose safely of the excess rainfall as runoff or concentrate inadequate rainfall runoff. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION: PRINCIPLE AND IMPORTANCE. The effects of various soil and water conservation techniques (SWCT) on runoff and soil loss in Europe have been extensively studied over the last 60 years. Fish-scale pits were suitable for the areas with small single rainfall and good water permeability. In eastern Colorado, a majority of the annual precipitation comes in the form of brief, high intensity, summer thunderstorms, often resulting in runoff and erosion. These practices reduce the impact of rainfall on the soil surface, reduce surface runoff volume and velocity, and increase soil resistance to erosion. Here are 11 tips for reducing water consumption at home. Management practices that reduce this runoff will improve precipitation use efficiency. Freeze Injury and Other Environmental Stresses. The amount of runoff depends on soil type, slope length and steepness, and on soil surface conditions. Effects of soil and water conservation practices on runoff, sediment and n utrient losses, https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/58457. This study focused on the effects of several typical soil and water conservation practices and agricultural land, for the purpose of: (1) determining how these practices prevent erosion and nutrient loss and identifying the hydrodynamic mechanisms; and (2) determining the application conditions for different practices. Hence, many data are available. Soil and water conservation practices and agricultural activities can change the soil surface morphology and thus affect erosion and nutrient losses. Runoff from high intensity rainfall is a smaller, but potentially important, loss of water. We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information. Water conservation efforts that will be applied are wastewater reuse into water recycle, rainwater harvesting, infiltration well construction and placing water meters. Soil erosion can be decreased by 80 to 90 percent in no-till systems when compared to conventionally tilled land. This can be achieved by using contour cultivation, terrace farming, water spreading, chemical treatment or improved water storage system. Seasonal soil loss (SLs) values were five to six times larger on rangeland (28.6 < SLs < 50.0 ton ha−1) compared to that for cropland (4.6 < SLs < 11.4 ton ha−1). Runoff represents a short-term water loss to the cropping system, while soil erosion induced by runoff can cause long-term and permanent damage to agricultural systems. Runoff was estimated to range between 0.3 inches for drought years and management with good surface protection to 3.2 inches for wet years and management with poor protection of the soil surface. Principles of Water Harvesting and Conservation In deciding which techniques to use to make more efficient use of the available water, it is important to consider how crops receive or lose water. It is estimated that between 2 and 6.8 billion tons of soil per year is lost from cropland in the United States due to erosion. The use of daily estimates of soil moisture and crop needs to schedule irrigation reduces the risk of surface runoff and soil erosion. Turn off faucets. Rainfall is a major dynamic source of soil erosion and nutrient loss on slopes. Soil and water conservation practices could change the hydraulic characteristics of slopes, decrease Re (Reynolds) and Fr (Froude) numbers, thereby decreasing runoff, sediment, TN and TP losses. In reality, these practices may be applied in combination so as to effectively control water, soil and nutrient losses. Low probability runoff scenarios correspond to flatter land with good residue cover, while high runoff probability corresponds to steeper slopes with little residue cover. Gerlach troughs and runoff plots were used to evaluate the physical effectiveness. 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