This same concept of using recycled water is also being practiced in the agricultural industry. For example, evapotranspiration of water from plants is released into the atmosphere and is considered nonrecoverable. JM Knowles W Many of these agricultural chemicals, including nitrogen fertilizer, contaminate aquatic ecosystems through leaching and runoff, resulting in the eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems and other environmental problems (Howarth 2003). However, there appear to be problems with some private, for-profit companies operating water systems for communities and regions. Find out how we are meeting the challenge of increased future demand for water in a drying climate. 2002, Shiklomanov and Rodda 2003, UNEP 2003a, Gleick 2004). Given that many aquifers are being overdrafted, government efforts are needed to limit the pumping to sustainable withdrawal levels or to the known recharge rate. JA Rice in China is reported to require at least 80% soil moisture (Pimentel et al. Farmers should implement water-conserving irrigation practices, such as drip irrigation, to reduce water waste. Postel Dust Abatement – Water is used, in this case, to help prevent dust. The nature of each agricultural water source (e.g., ground water or surface water); 2. The distribution of river water also creates conflicts between the water needs of several US states and between the needs of the United States and Mexico. But there are also issues that can arise from too much rain (and water in general), such as flooded fields for crops that do not do well under those conditions. The quantity of livestock manure and other wastes produced each year in the United States is estimated to be 1.5 billion t (Pimentel et al. 2004). . Specifically, global irrigation per capita has declined nearly 10% during the past decade (Postel 1999, Gleick 2002), while irrigated land per capita in the United States has remained constant at about 0.08 ha (USDA 2003). Hotez 2004), while an additional 1 million to 2.5 million L per ha of soil moisture evaporate into the atmosphere (Pimentel et al. Assuming an average recharge rate of 1%, this leaves only 11 × 1013 m3 of water per year available for sustainable use worldwide. . Glenn Integrated programs for water resource management offer many opportunities to conserve water resources for everyone, including farmers and the public. For example, the increased use of trees and shrubs makes it possible to catch and slow water runoff by 10% to 20%, thereby conserving water before it reaches streams, rivers, and lakes (Pimentel et al. This aspect of the hydrologic cycle is vital not only to agriculture but also to human life and natural ecosystems (Pimentel et al. Furthermore, the human populations in Middle Eastern countries are increasing rapidly, some having doubled in the last 20 to 25 years, placing additional stress on the difficult political climate (PRB 2003). 2004). 2004). K . . Shortages in food supplies have in part contributed to the global problem of more than 3 billion malnourished people in the world (WHO 2004a). If further competition for water resources within regions and between countries continues to escalate, this too will have negative impacts on essential freshwater supplies for personal and agricultural use. Purifying and reducing the number of polluting microbes in water, as measured by biological oxygen demand (BOD), is costly in terms of energy. 2004). California's agriculture accounts for only 3% of the state's economic production but consumes 85% of the water withdrawn (Myers and Kent 2001). The total annual government subsidy is estimated to range from $2.5 billion to $4.4 billion for the 4.5 million ha of irrigated land in the western United States (Myers and Kent 2001, van Beers and de Moor 2001). Any crop that was affected by flood water during the weather event should not be sold into the marketplace. In that inspection, a farmer must identify conditions that may result in hazards contaminating produce through water, and take into consideration: 1. Sites located in agricultural land were also consistently contaminated, implicating agricultural drainage waters are a source of E. coli. The extent of the farmer’s control over each source; 3. WS Washing Produce – During the harvesting process, when any of the harvested crops are washed or re-hydrated using sanitized water. This water is not always available to growers in rural locations, and is also typically higher priced water, and may also contain additives (just as is the case with your local drinking water). An estimated 1% of the storage capacity of the world's dams is lost each year because of silt accumulation (Pimentel et al. . The water required to keep natural ecosystems, and especially plants, functioning has been appropriately termed green water (Falkenmark 1995). 1997). 1998), the indirect water inputs for livestock production are substantial because of the water required for forage and grain crops. Worldwide, pesticides alone contribute to an estimated 26 million human poisonings and 220,000 deaths each year (Richter 2002). Kent From 1950 to 1990, this uncontrolled withdrawal caused water tables to fall by more than 30 m in some US regions (Brown 2002). 2002). Gleick DE All of these major changes are likely to reduce water availability for humans and other living organisms, including the water needed for crop and forest production (Root et al. Worldwide, the average withdrawal is 1970 L per person per day for all purposes (Gleick et al. 2004). 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