Barbour, M. 1977. Im bewegten Sand der Weißdünen sind die Pflanzen in der Regel vital. and M.M. J. Ecology 48:117-141. It grows from a network of thick rhizomeswhich give it a sturdy anchor in its sand substrate and allow it to sprea… It grows most vigorously on mobile and semi-fixed dunes of varying chemical and physical make-up. California Department of Fish and Game. Stress metabolites and their role in coastal plants. Yemm. In addition, the leaves of A. arenaria inroll during dry periods reducing water loss through transpiration. Item Description. Dover Publications, Incorporated, New York. Die jungen markigen Rhizome sind weißlich und verfügen über gelblich-weiße, abgestorbene Schuppenblätter. Lieferzeit Pflanzen: zwischen Mittwoch 18.11 und Mittwoch 25.11 Kostenlose Lieferung ab € 35 (auch zusammen mit anderen Produkten). Effects of Ammophila arenaria on sand dune arthropod communities. An ecological approach to dune management in the National Recreation Areas of the United States East Coast. List committee review date: 03/12/2017. Die meisten rezenten Strandhafer-Bestände in Sandlebensräumen sind darauf zurückzuführen. 1976. Godfrey. Crook, C.S. The adaptation of A. arenaria to sand accretion is well known. Ammophila arenaria threatens coastal sand dunes in the eastern and western United States. Effects of. Lindberg, C.A. Ammophila arenaria is a species of flowering plant in the grass family Poaceae. Tansley, A. G. 1939. 1974. Die Ausbreitung des Strandhafers erfolgt in erster Linie vegetativ. Dieses schützt die Pflanze außerdem gegen den Windschliff durch die verwehenden scharfkantigen Sandkörner. Viability of seeds is low. Monitoring should be conducted to determine if exotic species, such as Carpobrotus, are replacing A. arenaria. Manual removal (digging) controls the spread of A. arenaria but is labor intensive. Currently, where dominated by A. arenaria, the foredune topography has changed to a steep slope, and the orientation of the dunes is parallel to the coast. 1980. of Fish and Wildlife Route 5, Box 325 Corvallis, OR 97330 (503) 757-4186. Er kann nur auf Substraten wachsen, die weniger als 1 % Kochsalz aufweisen. Along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States it is known to greatly alter beach profiles and subsequently change the impact and effect of storms on the coastline.[16]. For a better understanding of the adaptation of Ammophila arenaria, a morphometric study is necessary. Ranwell (1959) reports that it can survive 100 cm of sand deposition per year, whereas Elymus mollis can only tolerate 30 cm per year. An ongoing eradication program has utilized this method with mixed results. Wiedemann, A.M., J. Dennis, and F.S. Der Gewöhnliche Strandhafer bevorzugt ein ozeanisches Klima in Meeresnähe. Letter to Andrea Pickart, Preserve Manager, Lanphere-Christensen Dunes Preserve. [8], In Oregon, Crook (1979a, 1979b)[6][7] reports that prior to the introduction of European Beachgrass there were no foredunes along the coast. Journal of Applied Ecology, 27, 188-199 . Vegetatio 62, 273 – 278. The common names for these grasses include marram grass, bent grass, and beachgrass.These grasses are found almost exclusively on the first line of coastal sand dunes. Influence of Ammophila arenaria on foredune plant microdistributions at Point Reyes National Seashore, California. Thanks. Er ist die Kennart der Pflanzengesellschaft des sogenannten Strandroggen-Strandhafer-Rasens (Elymo-Ammophiletum Br.-Bl. An jedem der vielen ruhenden Knoten bilden sich je vier Wurzeln, die sich ihrerseits reich verzweigen können. Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California. The foredunes were low and rose above the beach with a gentle slope. arenaria (L.) Link Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2001) in Fitzpatrick, K. B., (ed. Vegetative dune stabilization in North Carolina. Schmalzer, P.A. Plant Assessment Form. Die Schadwirkung wird mit einem Abnehmen von auf das Wurzelwachstum günstig wirkender Pilze, sogenannter Mykorrhiza, mit zunehmender Alterung und Versauerung der Grau- und Braundünenstandorte in Zusammenhang gebracht. Observations relating to vigour and debility in marram grass [, Huiskes, A.H.L. 1963. [14], A. arenaria is highly adapted to sand accretion. 1959b. Hope-Simpson, J.F., and R.C. Die jungen Wurzeln sind ebenfalls weiß und fleischig, während sie mit zunehmendem Alter verholzen und braun werden. On the morpho-anatomical level, marram grass (Ammophila arenaria L.), a typical granimeous plant of the coastal dunes, is well adapted to its biotope. Electron microscopial studies of the microflora of roots of sand dune grasses. Der Wind kann so ungehindert den Sand verwehen, schmale Rinnen können zu metertiefen Schluchten ausblasen und schließlich ganze Dünen in Bewegung bringen, wodurch schließlich die Schutzfunktion verloren geht. [5] Der Strandhafer ist auch Nahrung für eine Weichwanze (Miridae), Trigonotylus psammaecolor, die an den Blättern und unreifen Samen saugt. An Küsten und auf Inseln kommt dem Gras eine besondere Rolle für den Aufbau und die Stabilität von Dünen zu. Dolan, R., P.J. Webley, D.M., D.J. This article is about grass. Several aerial shoots or tillers per node arise from the vertical rhizome to form dense tufts. The anatomy and the physiognomy of this plant enable it a perfect adaptation for hydric and salt stress in these dunes. arenaria (L.) Link Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2001) Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Corvallis, Oregon. Alternde Rhizome sind hohl und verfärben sich gelb bis braun. Die nordamerikanische Ammophila breviligulata Fern. Bereits eine Sandauflage von nur 1 cm kann die Keimung der Karyopsen verhindern. A. arenaria has been widely planted on the west coast of North America for dune stabilization since the early 1900's. Der Strandhafer gehört nicht zur Gattung Hafer (Avena), sondern zur Gattung Ammophila, gehört jedoch wie dieser zur Tribus Aveneae. In one case, complete removal was achieved, but the site was subsequently invaded by other exotic species. [8] Research on Elymus and Ammophila ssp. The Forester 4:141-142. It also occupies dunes further inland where sand is actively moving. Increased human disturbance and therefore sand dune destabilization, along the coastline favours A. D. Orton - Dune Brittlestem. In Ammophila arenaria, there is tight upward folding of the leaf and also the sheltered situated of the stomata in furrows, greatly reduce air movement over stomatal areas. Van Hook, S. 1983. Ammophila (synonymous with Psamma P. Ammophila (synonymous with Psamma P. Cultivation. Wallen, B. 1970. 1965. California Press, Berkeley, CA. Blake, C.T. Sand deposition stimulates growth of A. arenaria, which in turn encourages more sand deposition. Braunton Burrows: The dune system and its vegetation. No. 18:101-110. Possible role of rhizosphere bacteria in the nitrogen nutrition of Ammophila arenaria. bestanden, zum Teil auch nur regional, auch die weiteren deutschsprachigen Trivialnamen: Halem (Helgoland), Hallem (Helgoland), Heelme (Jütland), Hellem (Wangerooge), Helm (Jütland), Helmd (Jütland), Rotwettel (bezieht sich nur auf die Wurzel, Wangerooge), Sandhalm, Sandhawer (Unterweser) und Strandhafer (Mark Brandenburg).[8]. Special motor cells (hinge) on the upper surface of the leaf are responsible for the inward rolling of leaves. Growth slows during winter but never ceases entirely. [3][4], In native habitats, A. arenaria alone makes up the foredune plant community. Plants of Oregon coastal dunes. free access. The common names for these grasses include marram grass, bent grass, and beachgrass.These grasses are found almost exclusively on the first line of coastal sand dunes. Increased human disturbance and therefore sand dune destabilization, Special motor cells (hinge) on the upper surface of the leaf are responsible for the inward rolling of leaves. As for the diameter and the number of leaves, these correlations remain important with r2 = 69.5%. Breckon, G.J. Der Strandhafer ist in der Lage, bis zu 1 m Sand im Jahr zu durchwachsen. Ammophila arenaria has been introduced in many countries, because of its excellent dune building capabilities (Konlechner, Hilton, & Orlovich, 2013). ), Articles of the Oregon Coastal Zone Management Association, Inc. Newport, Oregon. [3][4], Non-native habitat A. arenaria has been introduced to stabilize sand on the west coast of the United States since the early 1900s. A system of classifying and identifying Oregon's coastal beaches and dunes. 1980. Wareing. Sie werden bis zu 15 cm lang, sind allseitswendig und stets zusammengezogen. This page was last modified 14:56, 16 December 2013 by. Wiedemann, A.M. 1988. Control of this introduced species is necessary to protect the limited occurrences of viable natural sand dune systems along our coastlines. Control should be emphasized until eradication techniques are refined. Godfrey, P.J. However, water is still an essential resource for dune vegetation. After the grass has been removed from the preserve, monthly monitoring for newly established plants invading from surrounding areas should be conducted on a continuing basis. LANPHERE-CHRISTENSEN DUNES PRESERVE SUE VAN HOOK [85-1], LANPHERE-CHRISTENSEN DUNES PRESERVE SUE VAN HOOK [85-10-23], LANPHERE-CHRISTENSEN, SUE VAN HOOK [85-10-23]. The spread of A. arenaria can be controlled through manual removal, but this type of control requires on-going treatment. It is a perennial grass forming stiff, hardy clumps of erect stems up to 1.2 metres (3.9 ft) in height. Das Betreten von Schutzdünen sollte unbedingt nur auf ausgewiesenen Pfaden erfolgen, denn durch die Trittwirkung werden nicht nur die empfindlichen Keimlinge beeinträchtigt, sondern auch die ausgewachsenen Pflanzen niedergetreten. (1980) Ammophila arenaria subsp. Thather, Denslow Marshall, Jr. (1991). Der Gattungsname Ammophila entstammt dem Griechischen und bedeutet Sandfreund, von ámos = Sand und philos = Freund. II. Das Gleichgewicht zwischen Sandanwehung, der Bildung von Biomasse und der Schwächung des Strandhafers durch das Wurzelsystem schädigende Organismen beschränken schließlich die Höhe der Weißdünen auf etwa 25 Meter. Smirnoff, N. & Stewart, G. R. 1985. In Fitzpatrick, K.B. A. arenaria is a grass species specially adapted to growing on sand dunes. arenaria dominiert die Küsten Nordwesteuropas, Ammophila arenaria subsp. Their extensive systems of creeping underground stems or rhizomes allow them … Synonyms. Gray ; Studies on Populations. Gemmell, and C.H. Nicolson. Beach and dune planning and management: an annotated bibliography. Tussock formation in. Er beliefert die Pflanze mit Phosphor, Kalium und Calciumcarbonat. Bruce, C. 1983. The natural establishment of. Malloch, B. Geliefert : im Topf -- Topf : Ø 9 cm . 7001, Australia. Es ist maßgeblich an der Bildung der bis zu 25 Meter hohen Weißdünen beteiligt. A. arenaria usually invades from the upper beach. It forms a stiff culm about 2-30" tall that is terete and glabrous; this culm remains quite short if an inflorescence is not produced, in which case it is largely covered by the sheaths. Barbour, M., T.M. It tolerates a range of soil pH from 4.5-9.0 and soil temperatures from 10-40° C.[1], Native habitat. Inrolled leaves protect against water loss. A proposal: investigation into methods of control of European beachgrass, Miller, L.M. A study of Pacific Coast beach vegetation [12] revealed that A. arenaria exerts more control over community competition than any other beach dominant. from culms, seeds and rhizomes on the island of Voorne, Zuid, Holland, the Netherlands. Following control, monitoring for new invasion may be accomplished by thorough surveys of the foredune and upper beach each month. Ammophila arundinacea Host. 1974. [5][6][7][8] When planted on disturbed dunes or bare sand, it has initiated dune formation in the manner described above. Ammophila arenaria var. Huiskes, A.H.L. Lindberg, C.A. Der Strandhafer ist ein sogenannter Konkurrenz-Stress-Stratege (CS), d. h. bei schlechteren Lebensbedingungen (Stress) hat der wuchskräftige Pionier einen Vorteil gegenüber anderen Pflanzen (Konkurrenten), welche auf günstigeren Standorten dominieren. Baye, P. 1988. Agronomy Information Leaflet. Das Epitheton arenaria ist Latein und meint „sandig“. Die Ammophila arenaria (Strandhafer) gehört zur Familie der Süßgräser, die uns aus dem Dünenbereich bekannt sind. Plant associes and succession cycles of the sand dune and dune slack vegetation. 2012. Biological flora of the British Isles. published literature (other) [15] Mature seeds are dispersed in September. Ammophila (synonymous with Psamma P. Newborough Warren, Anglesey. [2], European Beachgrass plays an important role in the process of dune formation. Der wissenschaftliche Name des Gewöhnlichen Strandhafers bedeutet übersetzt „Sandiger Sandfreund“. Fowler, T.R. Evergreen State College, Olympia, Washington. (Ammophila arenaria L.), a typical granimeous plant of the coastal dunes, is well adapted to its biotope. 1977. 124 Downloads; 27 Citations; Abstract. On the morpho-anatomical level, marram grass (Ammophila arenaria L.), a typical granimeous plant of the coastal dunes, is well adapted to its biotope. 1898. It is not to be confused with Ammophila (wasp). Suggested uses. As dunes become stabilized by this species, however, other species are able to take hold. In this Dutch study three different methods of establishing marram were assessed: planting bundles of culms (traditional method), sowing seeds, and … 27-29; 41-43. Doyen. Monitoring untreated stands is accomplished by measuring the increase in stand size at four points located at the windward, leeward, and lateral boundaries. James Barry, Resource Protection Division California Dept. The MWRP is further refining methods and specifications. Madrono: a west american journal of botany, 39, no. Verrottendes organisches Material stellt eine zusätzliche Stickstoffquelle dar. Our result shows that in the field, soil salinity did not explain the growth of Ammophila arenaria and Elytrichia juncea over a summer period. Ferner wird der Gewöhnliche Strandhafer aufgrund seines ausgedehnten Wurzelwerkes im Rahmen von Küstenschutzmaßnahmen als Erosionsschutz zur Befestigung von Randdünen, heute seltener auch auf Binnendünen und Flugsandfeldern, angepflanzt. Title: Ammophila arenaria: Title NL : Helm (Botanisch Basisregister Nummer 000050) Subcollection: Wurzelatlas mitteleuropaeischer Gruenlandpflanzen, Band 1: Monocotyledoneae: Creator: Lichtenegger, E. (Erwin) (Wurzeldarstellungen) Date [1982] Type: … Share Tweet Ammophila arenaria. On the physiological 1979b. ammophila arenaria extends along the western shores of europe from about 63° n .in norway (hulten 1971) to the shores of the mediterranean and north africa i. e. through some 27° of latitude. Added protection from the wind and sand deposition results in the pattern of new growth to the lee of the existing tussocks. Jeffries. In Chapbot, B. F. and H. A. Mooney, (eds. In autumn the latter predominates. Mem. European beachgrass grows more densely than native American dunegrass (Leymus mollis), trapping passing sand and creating steep dunes that run parallel to the shoreline. [4] Ferner ist das Gras für die Küstensandzirpe (Psammotettix maritimus) und die Strandhafer-Spornzikade (Gravesteiniella boldi) die einzige Wirtspflanze. The moisture of this substrate increases with the depth while the salinity decreases. [6][7][10] It has recently been determined that A. breviligulata, native to the dunes of the East Coast and Great Lakes and introduced to Washington and Oregon, is actually more prevalent than A. arenaria in Washington.[11]. Ende des 19. In Europe, anthesis occurs in July and August [2] but has been reported as early as May. Barbour, M.G., T.M. Stockwerk um Stockwerk baut er so die Weißdünen auf. Lamb, F.H. My teacher has asked me to research the adaptations of ammophila. Rapid vertical growth of the grass initiates dune formation, and the grass spreads rapidly in all directions by horizontal rhizomes. Hassouna, M.G., and P.F. Because of its natural ability to colonize and stabilize sand dunes, marram grass Ammophila arenaria is often used to control coastal erosion. Data on pattern within plant communities. 1. Ammophila arenaria (Marram Grass or European Beach-grass) has been introduced to the active dune systems of southeast Australia (Hesp and Thom, 1990; Cullen, 1998); North America (Wiedemann and Pickart, 1996); South Africa (Hertling and Lubke, 1999a); Chile (Hulten and Fries, 1986; Castro, 1988) and New Zealand (Johnson, 1992; Partridge, 1992). Second, it interferes with the natural dynamics of dune systems. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 25. Vertical rhizomes develop, branching from a horizontal rhizome, as sand accumulates around plants. Adaptation in perennial coastal plants – with particular reference to heritable variation in Puccinellia maritima and Ammophila arenaria. Not only is transpiration reduced to a minimum, but also the deep root systems are able to access water from the lower moist layers in the dunes. Seedling survival is low as a result of desiccation, burial, and/or erosion. 1987. Er ist auf eine regelmäßige Übersandung angewiesen. Sein Wurzelwerk bindet den Sand. American Science 61:152-162. 1967. Sie sind von der Spitze bis zum Grund gespalten. Im Gartenbereich bietet sich der Strandhafer besonders in Gärten an, die einen Strand- bzw. Die Pflanzen einer Generation können bis zu 100 Jahre alt werden. ), Terrestrial vegetation of California. Ammophila arenaria is native to the British Isles and the coasts of the Baltic and North seas from 30 to 63 degrees north latitude. Damage to marram grass, Laing, C. 1958. Der Blütenstände des Gewöhnlichen Strandhafers sind kompakte, fuchsschwanzähnliche Rispen. Johnson. Sea Grant Publication, Davis, California. Dort übernimmt sie die Aufgabe, die Dünen zu befestigen. Beauv.) Ohne diese stetige Sandzufuhr stirbt der Strandhafer ab. In the first year, monthly treatment intervals are suggested; in subsequent years, frequency can be decreased. A. arenaria has escaped and become naturalized north of San Francisco [8] and forms extensive stands as far south as Vandenberg Air Force Base, San Luis Obispo county. Adaptation in perennial coastal plants – with particular reference to heritable variation in Puccinellia maritima and Ammophila arenaria. Element Stewardship Abstract; Mary Russo, Andrea Pickart, Larry Morse, and Rick Young, 1988. Published source details van Der Putten W.H. However, water is still an essential resource for dune vegetation. July 12, 1988. http://wiki.bugwood.org/index.php?title=Ammophila_arenaria&oldid=49679, Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health at the University of Georgia. 1988. Adaptation in perennial coastal plants-with particular reference to heritable variation in Puccinellia maritima and Ammophila arenaria. 1827 erfolgte die Überführung in die Gattung Ammophila, damit die Umbenennung in Ammophila arenaria durch den deutschen Naturwissenschaftler und ehemaligen Direktor des Botanischen Gartens Berlin, Heinrich Friedrich Link, in der Hortus regius botanicus Berolinensis, Band 1, Seite 105. Salt was believed to be a potential control since A. arenaria has a relatively low tolerance to soil salt (NaCl), although brief to moderate exposure to high salinity may stimulate bud emergence. There is strong observational evidence that marram grass Ammophila arenaria transforms vegetation when it invades temperate coastal sand dunes. Die Keimlinge können sich nur in sehr geschützten Bereichen etablieren. The influence of mineral nutrients on the growth of. ; in subsequent years, frequency can be decreased Manager Lanphere-Christensen dunes Preserve 6800 Lanphere Road Arcata, 95521. Weißdünen sind die Pflanzen in der Regel vital britischen Bestände meist eine größere Ähnlichkeit zum Gewöhnlichen auf. Similar animals to different environments are of particular evolutionary interest rhizome sind hohl verfärben. To a harsh life at the University of western Ontario, Canada 16 December 2013.... An der Bildung der bis zu zwei Meter constant, and Rick ammophila arenaria adaptations ( Revision ) ( )! Two undisturbed examples of this substrate increases with the natural dynamics of dune formation, and management on the stems! „ Sandiger Sandfreund “ Hauptwurzelhorizont liegt etwa einen Meter unter der Oberfläche, zuweilen bis zu 15 cm lang sind... The spread of A. arenaria to sand accretion is well known the inner surface of the are... 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